Effectual and preventative intervention services are necessary for children who are at risk of school failure because of the deficiencies linked with ADHD symptoms. They are at increased risk for developing more serious behavior problems. Effectual interventions are those which are not specific to the diagnosis but to the child’s individual needs. This was highlighted in a study authored by Dr. George J. DuPaul, professor and chair of the Department of Education and Human Services of the Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. The study examined the efficacy of the three types of ADHD interventions including contingency, academic and cognitive behavioral management.
The study’s findings showed that school-based treatments have positive results on both behavioral and academic measures. More specifically, combined interventions of academic elements and contingency management had the most impact on academic accomplishment irrespective of the type of research and school setting. Contingency and cognitive behavioral methods were more efficacious at altering disruptive behavior. In addition, summer programs or private school resulted in improved behavior outcomes while more academic accomplishment public school environments resulted in more academic achievements.
While this research provides considerable proof for the justification of school-based interventions for ADHD, not one of the research or studies examined by Dr. DuPaul included any follow-up long term measures of school performance. This limitation is important because children with ADHD may response well to short-term treatment, but we need more data to make conclusion about the long term outcome especially in academic performance. This lacking element should be taken into consideration in future studies or research.
DuPaul, George J., Tanya L. Eckert, and Brigid Vilardo. The effects of school-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis. 1996-2010.School Psychology Review41.4 (2012): 387-412. Print.